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  • Audio
  • Communications
  • DSP Kernels
  • Graphics (2D)
  • Graphics (3D)
  • Image Effects
  • Miscellaneous
  • Speech Recognition
  • Video

  • Audio

    Audio Echo Effects
    Presents examples of code that exploit these SIMD instructions to add echo to existing audio data.

    MPEG1 Audio Kernels
    This document describes the Synthesis Sub-band Filter algorithm used in the MPEG audio decoder and its implementation with the MMX technology..

    G.728 Code Book Search
    G.728 is an algorithm for coding/decoding speech signals at 16 kbit/s using Low-Delay Code Excited Linear Prediction. This application note presents examples of MMX instructions use to implement the Codebook Search module in the G.728 algorithm. This module receives an input vector and searches through a VQ (Vector Quantization)codebook to identify the closest match.

    Levinson-Durbin Filter
    The amount of data which represents a human voice or sound is most often too large to store on a typical PC. Therefore, encoding sound and only storing a partial set of the data would be more practical. Voice encoding is one of the applications in which the Levinson-Durbin algorithm is used. The application note presented here illustrates how to use the new MMX technology to perform matrix multiplication more efficiently.

    Schur Weiner Filter
    The amount of data which represents a human voice or sound is most often too large to store on a typical PC. Voice encoding is one of the applications in which the Schur Algorithm is used. This application note presents examples of code that exploit the MMX technology single-instruction, multiple data (SIMD)instructions to implement the Shur Algorithm.


    Passband Echo Canceller
    This application note presents an implementation of a common modem algorithm that takes advantage of the new Intel Architecture media extensions. The passband echo canceler is an adaptive filter that effectively cancels out the near and far end echoes allowing the transmitted signal from the remote modem to arrive more cleanly at the receiver.

    Baseband Echo Cancellation
    There are two sources of echo in a modem. The near end (NE) echo signal and the far echo signal. This application note presents an implementation of a common modem algorithm that takes advantages of the new MMX instruction, specifically the base band echo canceler. The base band echo canceler is an adaptive filter that effectively cancels out the near and far end echo allowing the transmitted signal from the remote modem to arrive more cleanly at the receiver.

    1/3 T Equalizer
    One goal of a data communication system is to realize a maximum likelihood that a transmitted data sequence is received in the same way it is transmitted. An equalizer is used at the receiver end of a system to counteract the non-ideal aspects of the communication system.

    2/3 T Spaced Equalizer
    This document presents a code example using MMX instruction to implement an adaptive filter, specifically the 2/3 T Spaced Equalizer algorithm on complex arithmetic data.

    DSP Kernels

    Efficient Vector/Matrix Multiply Routine
    This application note demonstrates significant speed up of a vector dot product and a Matrix Multiply routine. It also shows, how loop unrolling can be used to optimize the performance of MMX™ technology based code.

    Matrix Transpose
    This application note demonstrates two approaches to transposing a matrix using MMX™ technology based code.

    Real 16-bit FFT
    This document describes an implementation of a 16-bit, complex Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) procedure using MMX instructions. An FFT provides a fast algorithm for transforming discrete data from the time domain to the frequency domain. This algorithm has a wide range of applications in the signal processing world, including V.34 modem data pump.

    Dot Product - 16x16 -> 32
    Calculating the dot-product of two vectors requires executing a large number of multiply-accumulate operations. This application note shows how to use the MMXinstructions to significantly speed up 16-bit vector dot-product calculation.

    Real FIR - 16 bit
    FIR (Finite Impulse Response) are filtering functions that operate on complex numbers. These functions are frequently found in digital signal processing applications. Modem applications typically make heavy use of such functions. This application note shows how to use the MMX instructions to significantly speed up computation of 16 bit FIR digital filters.

    Vector Arithmetic and Logic Operations
    This application note presents two examples which demonstrate the use of MMX technology (SIMD) instructions to perform basic arithmetic and logic operations on vectors of numbers.

    High Precision Multiply
    MMX technology instructions include support for very fast 16-bit by 16-bit multiplication, returning 32-bit results. This document describes an implementation of a 16-bit by 31-bit multiplication operation using the MMX instruction set.

    Data Alignment
    This paper describes several simple techniques to guarantee data alignment for Assembly, C, C++, or Microsoft Windows with currently available software technology and tools.

    Graphics (2D)

    Fractals with MMX Technology
    Illustrates how to use the MMX technology to achieve better performance in generating Mandelbrot Set fractals.

    Sprite Overlay
    Sprites are computer characters which generally appear in the foreground.They are implemented by overlaying small sprite images on large background image. This application notes describe a Sprite Overlay function that uses MMXinstruction set and is called by a sprite engine to control sprites.

    Graphics (3D)

    MMX Technology for 3D Rendering
    Intel's MMX™ Technology processes multiple integer data items in parallel, 64 bits at a time. It can speed processing of pixels in 3D graphics, compared to straight Intel Architecture code which handles at most 32 bits at a time. Thus MMX technology may enable higher frame rates and/or higher quality images.

    3D Bilinear Texture Mapping
    An optimized MMX(TM) technology texture mapping algorithm, using bilinear interpolation as a filter and quadratic approximation for perspective correction.

    Gouraud shading is a scan line algorithm used to render objects smoothly in 3D graphics. If a scan line algorithm is used to render an object, a value for the intensity of each pixel along the scan line must be determined from the illumination model. This application note illustrates how to use MMX technology to achieve better performance in color rendering.

    3D Transform
    This paper describes the use of the MMX technology to accelerate one aspect of computer graphics: 3D geometry.

    Image Effects

    YUV12 to RGB Color Conversion
    Describes the usage of the new Intel MMX instruction set to implement Color Conversion Kernels (CCK) from YUV12 to RGB color space. The MMX instructions are Intel's implementation of Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions.

    2X 8-bit Image Scaling
    This application note exploits the SIMD instructions to implement the 2X image scaling algorithm.

    Bilinear Interpolation
    A common technique used for 3D rendering is to decompose the surface of objects into a large number of nearly planar triangles or rectangles. Their position in a 3-dimensional space is then mapped to the 2-dimensional display surface, and the individual triangles or rectangles are drawn one pixel at a time. One technique for increasing the realism of drawn images is commonly known as texture mapping. This application note deals with one aspect of this process: accurately determining the color to display at a single pixel on the display surface.

    Median Filter
    For images that have random noise, a Median Filter will effectively get rid of much of the noise without causing the blurring typical of a linear low pass filter. The Median Filter described in this paper takes the value of a non-edge pixel, and the eight pixels around it - left, right, upper left, upper right, upper center, lower left, lower right, lower center. Of these nine values, the median (not an average) value is used for the resulting image. For the edges, the existing pixel value is used without change.

    Row Filter- 8 bit
    This document presents examples of code that illustrate how to use the new MMXtechnology unpack, multiply, and add instructions to apply a filter across the rows of a graphical or video bitmap image.

    Column Filter
    This application note provides an example of an MMXtechnology optimized column filter implementation. The column filter described here performs multiplication of each 32-bit pixel value in a bitmap by the appropriate filter coefficient, and accumulates seven such multiplication to obtain the final pixel value.

    Alpha Blending
    Alpha blending is used for imaging effects; to merge two images together,weighting one image more than the other. Alpha blending can be used for fading from one image to another, or creating a translucent effect. This application note presents a code example that implements an alpha blending filter used for imaging effects.

    24 to 16 Bit Conversion
    The MMX technology instruction set includes single-instruction, multi-data (SIMD) instructions. This application note presents example code that exploit these instructions. Two RGB24to16 functions are examined that use MMX instruction set to complete the conversion.

    RGB > YUV
    Color spaces are 3-D coordinate systems in which each color is represented by a single point. Colors appear as their primary components red, green and blue, in the RBG color space. RGB is the format generally used by monitors. Each color appears as a luminance component, Y, and 2 chrominance components, U and V, in the YUV space. This document shows how MMXtechnology instructions can significantly speed up RGB to YUV color conversion.


    New EMMS Usage Guidelines
    Guidelines for EMMS usage have been changed due to significant side effect delay.

    Survey of Pentium® Processor Performance Monitoring Capabilities & Tools
    Performance monitoring methods & tools for the Pentium® processor are discussed.

    How to Use Floating-Point or MMX Technology in Ring 0 or a VxD under Windows® 95
    The current release of Windows 95 4.00 does not allow floating-point or MMX™ instructions within VxD's, which run in ring 0. Floating point and MMX instructions in applications and DLL's are not restricted. The reason for the restriction is because Windows 95 does not allow floating-point exceptions when they are originated from ring 0.

    Speech Recognition

    Viterbi Decoding
    Viterbi decoding is a Dynamic Programming (DP) algorithm that among other applications,is used in evaluating Hidden Markov Models. This application note presents a code example that implements the Viterbi decoding algorithm.

    L1 Distance Measure
    This document presents an MMX instruction implementation of a L1 distance measure. L1 distance measure is also known as "sum of absolute differences."

    L2 Norm Distance Measure
    This document presents a code example that uses MMX instruction set to implement a 16-bit L2 norm function. L2 norm function,also known as the Euclidean distance, is often use as a distance measure to extract degrees of similarity between two vectors in speech compression.


    IDCT 2D 8x8
    This document describes an implementation of a two-dimensional Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform (IDCT) using MMX instructions. This transformation is widely used in image compression algorithms, most notably, the JPEG and MPEG standards.

    Motion Compensation
    This application note presents examples of MMX instruction set use to perform Motion Compensation (MC) for MPEG1 Video playback and specifically, techniques used for avoiding misalignment problem. Motion compensation is an operation where the motion vector is use to reconstruct the predicted block.

    Absolute Difference
    This document describes an MMX technology implementation of a procedure to perform an absolute difference on a 16x16 block of pixels. This procedure can be an integral part of a motion estimation kernel. Motion estimation is a technique used in video compression to try and predict movement between consecutive frames.

    Haar Transform - 2x2
    The 2x2 Haar transform is used to decompose an image into 4 bands whose spatial frequencies and information contents differ. These differences allows sub-band compression methods to control the bit rate by quantizing bands differently and to control the decode time by removing one or more bands from the bit stream. 2x2 Haar transform is computed by adding and subtracting adjacent image or array elements. This application note describe the MMX instruction set use to calculate the Haar transform.

    Get Bits
    This application note presents examples of instructions such as MMX technology shift instructions to manipulate a data stream. The performance improvement relative to Intel Architecture (IA) code can be attributed primarily to much faster shift instructions, and also due to the fact that MMX technology shifts instruction operate on 64 -bit values instead of 32-bit values shift instruction.

    Video Loop Filter
    Filtering or smoothing operations are used to reduce noise in imagery that is often characterized by high frequency components. This application note presents the basics of a loop filter implementation using MMX instructions.

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